High Availability

Base Pacemaker/Corosync Config (Using Asterisk as an example service)

Note that these instructions are based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, and may vary if you're on a different version or OS.


High Availability allows multiple servers to cluster to provide one or more network services to clients without clients having to treat them as separate servers. The cluster will detect failures, and move resources to the appropriate server to continue availability.


Pacemaker and Corosync work together to provide a cluster system capable of managing IPs and other services to ensure availability. In the case of 2 server clusters, Pacemaker will need to be told to ignore quorum issues, and the potential for split-brain scenarios is increased. This config will be based on a cluster communicating via unicast rather than multicast.

This configuration is based on the post here: http://syshell.net/2014/08/26/pacemaker-configure-cluster/

  1. Install Pacemaker and Corosync on all nodes

    apt-get install pacemaker corosync
  2. If you have fewer than three hosts, set general pacemaker config to ignore quorum on all nodes

    echo "CMAN_QUORUM_TIMEOUT=0" > /etc/default/cman
  3. Enable corosync to start on boot on all nodes

    echo "START=yes" > /etc/default/corosync
  4. Configure pacemaker to start on boot on all nodes

    update-rc.d pacemaker defaults
  5. Determine the value for your bindnetaddr config line

    ip addr | grep "inet " | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $4}' | sed s/255/0/
  6. Configure /etc/corosync/corosync.conf on all nodes

    You will want to adjust the bindnetaddr, ttl, cluster_name, and node list to fit your application. This is an example configuration for a two node cluster.

    totem {
            version: 2
            # How long before declaring a token lost (ms)
            token: 3000
            # How many token retransmits before forming a new configuration
            token_retransmits_before_loss_const: 10
            # How long to wait for join messages in the membership protocol (ms)
            join: 60
            # How long to wait for consensus to be achieved before starting a new round of membership configuration (ms)
            consensus: 3600
            # Turn off the virtual synchrony filter
            vsftype: none
            # Number of messages that may be sent by one processor on receipt of the token
            max_messages: 20
            # Limit generated nodeids to 31-bits (positive signed integers)
            clear_node_high_bit: yes
            # Disable encryption
            secauth: off
            # How many threads to use for encryption/decryption
            threads: 0
            # Optionally assign a fixed node id (integer)
            # nodeid: 1234
            # This specifies the mode of redundant ring, which may be none, active, or passive.
            rrp_mode: none
            interface {
                    # The following values need to be set based on your environment 
                    ringnumber: 0
                    bindnetaddr: <BINDNETADDR HERE>
                    mcastport: 5405
                    ttl: 1
            transport: udpu
            cluster_name: ha-asterisk
    nodelist {
            node {
            node {
    amf {
            mode: disabled
    quorum {
            # Quorum for the Pacemaker Cluster Resource Manager
            provider: corosync_votequorum
            expected_votes: 1
    aisexec {
            user:   root
            group:  root
    logging {
            fileline: off
            to_stderr: yes
            to_logfile: no
            to_syslog: yes
            syslog_facility: daemon
            debug: off
            timestamp: on
            logger_subsys {
                    subsys: AMF
                    debug: off
                    tags: enter|leave|trace1|trace2|trace3|trace4|trace6
  7. Start Corosync and Pacemaker

    At this point corosync and pacemaker should be configured to form the base of the cluster. Lets start them and make sure things are reporting as expected. On all nodes:

    service corosync start
    service pacemaker start

    Check if the cluster is talking properly...

    root@ha-asterisk-1:/etc/corosync# crm_mon -A1f
    Last updated: Thu Mar 19 19:32:53 2015
    Last change: Thu Mar 19 15:39:58 2015 via cibadmin on ha-asterisk-1
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: ha-asterisk-2 (739835699) - partition with quorum
    Version: 1.1.10-42f2063
    2 Nodes configured
    0 Resources configured
    Online: [ ha-asterisk-1 ha-asterisk-2 ]
    Node Attributes:
    *  Node ha-asterisk-1:
    *  Node ha-asterisk-2:
    Migration summary:
    *  Node ha-asterisk-1: 
    *  Node ha-asterisk-2:

    We can see here that the two nodes are configured and online, the cluster has elected ha-asterisk-2 to be the controller (not necessarily where services will be started). At this point we are ready to move forward with configuring services.

  8. Configure the basic settings of the running cluster

    The following commands are issued via the cluster, and are automatically synced in the configuration amongst all nodes. STONITH is a means to forcibly stop the other node (usually via remote power control) in the case of a hangup. We aren't making use of it, so we'll disable it.

    crm configure property stonith-enabled=false

    If you only have two nodes, configure the cluster to ignore the fact that it doesn't have quorum in the case of a failure. Otherwise if a node in a two node cluster fails, the remaining node won't have quorum and won't start services.

    crm configure property no-quorum-policy=ignore

    Configure the cluster with resource stickiness, this gives the cluster a preference to keep services running where they already are. If this is not set, services may be migrated again after a failed node comes back online.

    crm configure rsc_defaults resource-stickiness=100
  9. Examine the basic configuration

    root@ha-asterisk-1:/etc/corosync# crm configure show
    node $id="739835698" ha-asterisk-1
    node $id="739835699" ha-asterisk-2
    property $id="cib-bootstrap-options" \
        dc-version="1.1.10-42f2063" \
        cluster-infrastructure="corosync" \
        stonith-enabled="false" \
    rsc_defaults $id="rsc-options" \
  10. Configure a Highly Available IP

    crm configure primitive HA-Asterisk-IP ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 params ip=IP_ADDRESS_HERE cidr_netmask=32 op monitor interval=30s

    Note that this IP will be added to the box locally, but if the IP is not part of the local subnet, you'll need to make sure that quagga is running and configured to allow the box to use the IP. See the quagga docs HERE.

  11. Configure a service to be managed

    As a note, the lsb: option references services controlled via init scripts (/etc/init.d/whatever), there are more in depth modules that can do more advanced configuration/monitoring for some services under ocf: like what is used for IPaddr2 in the config line above.

    crm configure primitive HA-Asterisk-Service lsb:asterisk op monitor interval=30s
  12. Configure pacemaker to keep the services (IP and Asterisk) together

    (By default pacemaker will distribute services across cluster nodes)

    crm configure colocation Service-With-IP INFINITY: HA-Asterisk-Service HA-Asterisk-IP
  13. Configure pacemaker to start the Asterisk service after the IP is started

    crm configure order Service-After-IP mandatory: HA-Asterisk-IP HA-Asterisk-Service
  14. Finished

    We now have a HA cluster that will maintain a HA IP address, and start the Asterisk service on the same node with the IP address. Syncing the asterisk service configs at this stage is up to the user. Something like DRBD could be used, though may be overkill for infrequently changing configs.

    root@ha-asterisk-1:/etc/corosync# crm configure show
    node $id="739835698" ha-asterisk-1
    node $id="739835699" ha-asterisk-2
    primitive HA-Asterisk-IP ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 \
        params ip="" cidr_netmask="32" \
        op monitor interval="30s"
    primitive HA-Asterisk-Service lsb:asterisk \
        op monitor interval="30s"
    colocation Service-With-IP inf: HA-Asterisk-Service HA-Asterisk-IP
    order Service-After-IP inf: HA-Asterisk-IP HA-Asterisk-Service
    property $id="cib-bootstrap-options" \
        dc-version="1.1.10-42f2063" \
        cluster-infrastructure="corosync" \
        stonith-enabled="false" \
    rsc_defaults $id="rsc-options" \

Add a node to an existing cluster